When the JsonDocument contains an array, JsonDocument::add() appends a value to the array.

When the JsonDocument contains a value that is not an array, JsonDocument::add() does nothing.

When the JsonDocument is empty, JsonDocument::add() converts the JsonDocument to an array containing one element.

This feature allows creating an array without calling JsonDocument::to<JsonArray(). For example the two following snippets are equivalent:

JsonArray arr =<JsonArray>();


bool add(bool value);

bool add(float value);
bool add(double value);

bool add(signed char value);
bool add(signed long value);
bool add(signed int value);
bool add(signed short value);
bool add(unsigned char value);
bool add(unsigned long value);
bool add(unsigned int value);
bool add(unsigned short value);

bool add(char *value);
bool add(const char *value);  // ⚠️ stores by pointer
bool add(const __FlashStringHelper *value);

bool add(const String &value);
bool add(const std::string &value);
bool add(const Printable& value);
bool add(std::string_view value);

bool add(JsonArray array);
bool add(JsonObject object);
bool add(JsonVariant variant);
bool add(const JsonDocument& doc);

bool add(TEnum value);  // alias of add(int)
bool add(T value);      // calls user-defined function

JsonArray add<JsonArray>() const;      // 🆕 adds a new empty array
JsonObject add<JsonObject>() const;    // 🆕 adds a new empty object
JsonVariant add<JsonVariant>() const;  // 🆕 adds a new null variant


value: the value of to append to the array, it can be any type supported by ArduinoJson.

If you pass a JsonArray, a JsonObject, or a JsonVariant, JsonDocument::add() makes a complete clone of the argument. In other words, the value is stored by copy, not by reference.

As usual, ArduinoJson makes a copy of a string in the JsonDocument, except if it’s a const char*.

Return value

JsonDocument::add() returns a bool that tells whether the operation was successful or not:

  • true if the value was successfully added.
  • false if there was not enough memory in the JsonDocument.

String duplication

ArduinoJson makes a copy of the string when you call this function with one of the following types:


JsonDocument doc;
array.add("hello"); // null -> ["hello"]
array.add(3.14156); // ["hello"] -> ["hello",3.14156]
serializeJson(doc, Serial);

will write


See also